A systematic study has been carried out to assess the contamination of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in five highly urbanized coastal cities spanning from temperate to subtropical environments along the coastline of China. In each of these cities, species of native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, M. coruscus or Perna viridis) were deployed alongside with semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for one month at a reference site and a polluted site. The level of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in SPMDs and transplanted mussels were determined and compared. The concentration of EDCs in mussels from polluted sites of Qingdao and Shenzhen ranged from 99.4 ± 9.40 to 326.1 ± 3.16 ng/g dry wt. for 4-NP, Dalian and Shanghai from 170.3 ± 4.00 to 437.2 ± 36.8 ng/g dry wt. for BPA, Dalian and Shenzhen from 82.9 ± 3.03 to 315.6 ± 6.50 ng/g dry wt. for E2, and Shenzhen and Shanghai from 124.5 ± 3.25 to 204.5 ± 9.26 ng/g dry wt. for EE2, respectively. These results demonstrate that concentrations of EDCs in mussels along the coastline of China are substantially higher than levels reported in mussels and seafood elsewhere. Despite high levels of EDCs and per capita seafood consumption in China, analysis indicated that 4-NP and BPA intake from mussels at polluted sites per se are still below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). In contrast, the daily intake of E2 and EE2 (6.5 and 5.5 μg/person/day, respectively) from mussel consumption exceeded the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) established by the WHO, USA and Australia by large margins, suggesting significant public health risks. A strong correlation was found between EDC concentrations in SPMDs and transplanted mussels, and the advantages of using mussels and SPMDs for monitoring EDCs in the aquatic environment are discussed.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Endocrine disrupting chemicals
- Public health risks