## Abstract

Maximum likelihood is commonly used for the estimation of model parameters in the analysis of two-level structural equation models. Constraints on model parameters could be encountered in some situations such as equal factor loadings for different factors. Linear constraints are the most common ones and they are relatively easy to handle in maximum likelihood analysis. Nonlinear constraints could be encountered in complicated applications. The authors develop an EM-type algorithm for estimating model parameters with both linear and nonlinear constraints. The empirical performance of the algorithm is demonstrated by a Monte Carlo study. Application of the algorithm for linear constraints is illustrated by setting up a two-level mean and covariance structure model for a real two-level data set and running an EQS program.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 325-345 |

Number of pages | 21 |

Journal | Educational and Psychological Measurement |

Volume | 71 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Apr 2011 |

## Scopus Subject Areas

- Education
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Applied Psychology
- Applied Mathematics

## User-Defined Keywords

- EM algorithm
- linear and nonlinear constraints
- maximum likelihood estimation
- mean and covariance structure
- two-level structural equation model