Conditional citizenship: Hong Kong people's attitudes toward the new motherland


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20 Citations (Scopus)


On signing the Joint Declaration commencing Hong Kong's return to China, Deng Xiaoping promised 'Hong Kong people governing Hong Kong' would be Beijing's policy. There was, however, 'one condition in self-governing. That is to love China and to love Hong Kong'. He continued, 'So long as you love our nation and its unity, you can advocate your political views, including condemning the Communist Party'. Love of country or patriotism has long been associated with citizenship. However, Hong Kong people in large numbers have demonstrably feared, not loved, their new sovereign. Two years after reunion, nearly two thirds feel little on China's National Day celebrations, and barely a third would defend China if it were attacked by foreign powers. Do Hong Kong people fulfill Deng's conditions for self-rule? Are there any signs that Hong Kong people are developing the sort of commitment to China, the love of country, which is the foundation of the Chinese Communist Party's view of citizenship? In seeking to answer these questions, this article analyzes data generated by the Hong Kong Transition Project over 10 years of study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-183
Number of pages19
JournalCitizenship Studies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2001

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Political Science and International Relations


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