Composting of swine manure spiked with sulfadiazine, chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin

Ammaiyappan Selvam, Zhenyong Zhao, Jonathan W C Wong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

145 Citations (Scopus)


The fate of chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfadiazine (SDZ) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) during composting of swine manure and their effect on composting process were investigated. Swine manure was spiked with antibiotics, mixed with saw dust (1:1 on DW basis) and composted for 56 d. Antibiotics were spiked to a final concentration of 50 mg/kg CTC + 10 mg/kg SDZ + 10 mg/kg CIP (High-level) or 5 mg/kg CTC + 1 mg/kg SDZ + 1 mg/kg CIP (Low-level), and a control without antibiotics. Antibiotics at high concentrations delayed the initial decomposition that also affected the nitrogen mineralization. CTC and SDZ were completely removed from the composting mass within 21 and 3 d, respectively; whereas, 17–31% of the spiked CIP remained in the composting mass. Therefore, composting could effectively remove the CTC and SDZ spiked even at high concentrations, but the removal of ciprofloxacin (belonging to fluoroquinolone) needs to be improved, indicating this antibiotic may get into the ecosystem through land application of livestock compost.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)412-417
Number of pages6
JournalBioresource Technology
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2012

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal

User-Defined Keywords

  • Antibiotics
  • Chlortetracycline
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Composting
  • Sulfadiazine


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