Comparing work behaviors across cultures: A cross-level approach using multilevel modeling

Xu Huang*, Evert Van De Vliert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Prior studies examined cross-national differences in the links between organizational characteristics and workers' attitudes and behaviors using a nation-as-a-moderator analytical model. We point out four major methodological problems of testing the nation-as-a-moderator model at individual level. Based on two series of cross-national studies that successfully employed multilevel modeling, we propose a cross-level nation-as-amoderator model to resolve the methodological problems. We further contend that the cross-level approach may also offer an alternative theoretical perspective for researchers to map and explain cross-national variation in organizational behaviors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-182
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Cross Cultural Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2003

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Cultural Studies
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management

User-Defined Keywords

  • Cross culture
  • Cross-level research
  • Multilevel analysis
  • Research methods
  • Work attitudes


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