Exosomes, one of three main types of extracellular vesicles, are ~30–100 nm in diameter and have a lipid bilayer membrane. They are widely distributed in almost all body fluids. Exosomes have the potential to regulate unknown cellular and molecular mechanisms in intercellular communication, organ homeostasis, and diseases. They are critical signal carriers that transfer nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and other substances into recipient cells, participating in cellular signal transduction and material exchange. ncRNAs are non-protein-coding genes that account for over 90% of the genome and include microRNAs (miRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs). ncRNAs are crucial for physiological and pathological activities in the liver by participating in gene transcription, posttranscriptional epigenetic regulation, and cellular processes through interacting with DNA, RNA, or proteins. Recent evidence from both clinical and preclinical studies indicates that exosome-derived noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are highly involved in the progression of acute and chronic liver diseases by regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, innate immunity, viral infection, fibrosis, and cancer. Therefore, exosome-derived ncRNAs have promising potential and clinical implications for the early diagnosis, targeted therapy, and prognosis of liver diseases.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Molecular Biology
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cell Biology