Fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 samples collected in five different cities (Hong Kong (HK), Guangzhou (GZ), Xiamen (XM), Xi'an (XA) and Beijing (BJ)) in China in the winter 2012-12 were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The biological effects of organic extracts were assayed using the human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B. All sixteen priority PAHs can be found in the PM2.5 samples of XA and BJ, but not in HK, GZ and XM, demonstrating the differential spatial source and distribution of PAHs. Our results showed that the total PAHs ranged from 3.35 to 80.45 ng/m3 air, leading by BJ, followed by XA, XM, GZ and HK. In the cell culture study, transcript levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were found to be induced in the treatment. The cells exposed to extracts from XA and BJ demonstrated significant migratory activities, indicating a sign of increase of tumorigenicity.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons