Checking for normality in linear mixed models

Ping Wu*, Lixing ZHU, Yun Fang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Linear mixed models are popularly used to fit continuous longitudinal data, and the random effects are commonly assumed to have normal distribution. However, this assumption needs to be tested so that further analysis can be proceeded well. In this paper, we consider the Baringhaus-Henze-Epps-Pulley (BHEP) tests, which are based on an empirical characteristic function. Differing from their case, we consider the normality checking for the random effects which are unobservable and the test should be based on their predictors. The test is consistent against global alternatives, and is sensitive to the local alternatives converging to the null at a certain rate arbitrarily close to 1/√n where n is sample size. Furthermore, to overcome the problem that the limiting null distribution of the test is not tractable, we suggest a new method: use a conditional Monte Carlo test (CMCT) to approximate the null distribution, and then to simulate p-values. The test is compared with existing methods, the power is examined, and several examples are applied to illustrate the usefulness of our test in the analysis of longitudinal data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)787-804
Number of pages18
JournalScience China Mathematics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Mathematics(all)

User-Defined Keywords

  • BHEP tests
  • conditional Monte Carlo test
  • estimated best linear unbiased predictors
  • linear mixed models


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