Characterization of oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rg1 in plasma and urine of rat

Jing Rong Wang, Tian Tian Tong, Lee Fong Yau, Cheng yu Chen, Li Ping Bai, Jing MA, Ming Hu, Liang LIU, Zhi Hong JIANG*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


This study describes the characterization of oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rg1 in rat urine and plasma. These in vivo metabolites were profiled by using UHPLC-QTOF MS-based method. On the basis of high-resolution MS/MS data, and comparison with chemically synthesized authentic compounds, nine oxygenated metabolites of Rg1 were characterized as vinaginsenosides 21 and 22 (M1 and M2), vinaginsenoside R15 (M3), 6-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-20-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) 3β, 6α, 12β, 20(S)-tetrahydroxy-24ξ-hydroxydammar-25-ene (M4 and M5), floralginsenoside A (M7 and M8), floralginsenoside B (M9) and epoxyginsenoside Rg1 (M13), respectively. Among these metabolites, M4, M5 and M13 are new ginsenosides and others were detected as in vivo metabolites of Rg1 for the first time. In addition, a series of oxygenated metabolites of Rh1 and deglycosylated metabolite of Rg1, were observed and characterized by comparing with compounds synthesized by us, which revealed an association between C-20 configuration and the extent of oxidation metabolism. Appearance of all these metabolites in blood stream and urine after i.v. dosing and oral administration of Rg1 was further examined, which clearly showed that mono-oxygenated metabolites of Rg1 were major circulating metabolites at the early stage after dosing. Characterization of exact chemical structures of these circulating metabolites contribute greatly to our understanding of chemical exposure after consumption of ginseng products, and provide valuable information for explaining multiple bioactivities of ginseng products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-86
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2016

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

User-Defined Keywords

  • Ginseng
  • Ginsenoside Rg
  • Metabolites
  • Oxygenation


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