近代汉语使役动词及其相关的句法、语义结构

Translated title of the contribution: Causative Verb, Related Syntactical and Semantic Structure in Modern Chinese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

近代汉语使役句中使役动词主要有:令、遣、使、教、著、放等,因之构成的并列复合词有:令使、使令、令教、教令、遣放、放教、著令等,它们原本都有特定的意义,因为常作兼语式的第一个动词(“NP1+V1[使/令/遣]+NP2+V2”中的V1),使其具体意义逐渐虚化,最后变成纯粹的“致使、使让”的使役义。它们产生和使用的时间先后不一,其中“令、使、遣、教”在秦汉时已用,“教、交、著”等在唐宋时常用,“叫、让”字句在明清时才逐渐使用。“使”、“令”、“遣”等其原始义即为命令、派遣义的动词,“教、交、著、叫、让”等用作“使令、使役”义则引申途径较为曲折,因而在使役句中,所表的使役强度在语义、语用上强弱有别。

The major causative verbs in modern Chinese are:令, 遣, 使, 教, 著, 放 etc. When they are combined, they form compound words such as 令使, 使令, 令教, 教令, 遣放, 放教, 著令. Originally they have their own meanings, however, since they are always used as “V1” in the “NP 1+V1 [使/令/遣] + NP 2 + V 2” structure, they lose their concrete meaning as well as their meaning is invariably reduced to “cause, lead to”. The time when this change takes place and becomes largely in use varies. Some like “令, 使, 遣, 教” were found in use as causative verbs since Qin and Han period and “教, 交, 著” since Tang and Song period, while “叫 , 让” were not used as causative verbs until Ming and Qing period . Verbs like 使, 令, 遣 have the sense of commanding and assigning tasks in the beginning. However, 教, 交, 著, 叫, 让 take a detour path to attain causative meaning. As a result, the degree of causative meaning they express differentiates when used in a causative structure.
Translated title of the contributionCausative Verb, Related Syntactical and Semantic Structure in Modern Chinese
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)82-91
Number of pages10
Journal语言文字学
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006

User-Defined Keywords

  • 近代汉语
  • 使役动词
  • 使役句
  • modern Chinese
  • causative verbs light
  • verb causative sentences

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