Calorie restriction (CR) can improve the metabolic balance of adults and elevate the relative abundance of probiotic bacteria in the gut while promoting longevity. However, the interaction between remodeled intestinal flora and metabolic improvement, as well as the mechanism for probiotic bacterial increase, are still unclear. In this study, using a metabolomics platform, we demonstrate for the first time, that CR leads to increased levels of malate and its related metabolites in biological samples. Next, we investigated the effects of CR on the gut microbial genome and the expression of mRNA related to energy metabolism which revealed a partially elevated TCA cycle and a subsequently promoted glyoxylate cycle, from which large amounts of malate can be produced to further impact malate related pathways in the host liver. Through the identification of key “hungry” metabolites produced by the gut microbiota that function in the promotion of autophagy in the host, further insight has been gained about a functional metabolic network important for both host-microbial symbiosis and maintenance of host health.