Building a Stronger CASA: Extending the Computers Are Social Actors Paradigm

Andrew Gambino, Jesse Fox, Rabindra A. Ratan

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

217 Citations (Scopus)


The computers are social actors framework (CASA), derived from the media equation, explains how people communicate with media and machines demonstrating social potential. Many studies have challenged CASA, yet it has not been revised. We argue that CASA needs to be expanded because people have changed, technologies have changed, and the way people interact with technologies has changed. We discuss the implications of these changes and propose an extension of CASA. Whereas CASA suggests humans mindlessly apply human-human social scripts to interactions with media agents, we argue that humans may develop and apply human-media social scripts to these interactions. Our extension explains previous dissonant findings and expands scholarship regarding human-machine communication, human-computer interaction, human-robot interaction, human-agent interaction, artificial intelligence, and computer-mediated communication.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-86
Number of pages16
JournalHuman-Machine Communication
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Communication

User-Defined Keywords

  • human-machine communication
  • human-computer interaction
  • human-robot Interaction
  • media equation
  • computers are social actors (CASA)


Dive into the research topics of 'Building a Stronger CASA: Extending the Computers Are Social Actors Paradigm'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this