Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and the accurate diagnosis of glioma has always been a challenge. Moreover, cerebellar glioma, which is difficult to be detected by magnetic resonance imaging, is not usually diagnosed until after the appearance of clinical symptoms. In this study, TRZD, a near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence (PL) nanoparticle with a dual function of imaging and therapy, was synthesized based on ZnGa2O4:Cr3+,Sn4+. TRZD showed excellent rechargeable NIR PL for more than 30 hours in vivo with good tissue penetration for long-term autofluorescence-free imaging. The tumor growth of both the subcutaneous and orthotropic glioma models was significantly inhibited by TRZD. This is the first-time approach using NIR PL nanoprobes for both diagnosis and therapy of glioma. This is also the first-time report of nanotechnology-based diagnosis and therapy of cerebellar gliomas. This study offers a highly promising multifunctional nanoparticle for theranostics of a wide range of brain diseases.