Biofunctional Activities of Equisetum ramosissimum Extract: Protective Effects against Oxidation, Melanoma, and Melanogenesis

Pin Hui Li, Yu Pin Chiu, Chieh Chih Shih, Zhi Hong Wen, Laura Kaodichi Ibeto, Shu Hung Huang, Chien Chih Chiu, Edmond Dik Lung MA, Chung Hang Leung, Yaw Nan Chang*, Hui Min David Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)
64 Downloads (Pure)


Equisetum ramosissimum, a genus of Equisetaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be separated into ethyl acetate (EA), dichloromethane (DM), n-hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), and water extracts. EA extract was known to have potent antioxidative properties, reducing power, DPPH scavenging activity, and metal ion chelating activity. This study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on three human malignant melanomas: A375, A375.S2, and A2058. MTT assay presented the notion that both EA and DM extracts inhibited melanoma growth but did not affect the viabilities of normal dermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) or fibroblasts. Western blot analyses showed that both EA and DM extracts induced overexpression of caspase proteins in all three melanomas. To determine their roles in melanogenesis, this study analyzed their in vitro suppressive effects on mushroom tyrosinase. All extracts except for water revealed moderate suppressive effects. None of the extracts affected B16-F10 cells proliferation. EA extract inhibited cellular melanin production whereas DM extract unexpectedly enhanced cellular pigmentation in B16-F10 cells. Data for modulations of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, and tyrosinase-related protein 2 showed that EA extract inhibited protein expression mentioned above whereas DM extract had the opposite effect. Overall, the experiments indicated that the biofunctional activities of EA extract contained in food and cosmetics protect against oxidation, melanoma, and melanin production.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2853543
JournalOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Ageing
  • Cell Biology


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