An increasing quantum of pollutants from various industrial sector activities represents a severe menace to environmental & ecological balance. Bioremediation is gaining flow globally due to its cost-effective and environment-friendly nature. Understanding biodegradation mechanisms is of high ecological significance. Application of microbial enzymes has been reported as sustainable approach to mitigate the pollution. Immobilized enzyme catalyzed transformations are getting accelerated attention as potential alternatives to physical and chemical methods. The attention is now also focused on developing novel protein engineering strategies and bioreactor design systems to ameliorate overall biocatalysis and waste treatment further. This paper presents and discusses the most advanced and state of the art scientific & technical developments about biocatalytic remediation of industrial pollutants. It also covers various biocatalysts and the associated sustainable technologies to remediate various pollutants from waste streams. Enzyme production and immobilization in bioreactors have also been discussed. This paper also covers challenges and future research directions in this field.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Waste streams