Bile acids (BAs) play a crucial role in nutrient absorption and act as key regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism and immune homeostasis. Through the enterohepatic circulation, BAs are synthesized, metabolized, and reabsorbed, with a portion entering the vascular circulation and distributing systemically. This allows BAs to interact with receptors in all major organs, leading to organ-organ interactions that regulate both local and global metabolic processes, as well as the immune system. This review focuses on the whole-body effects of BA-mediated metabolic and immunological regulation, including in the brain, heart, liver, intestine, eyes, skin, adipose tissue, and muscle. Targeting BA synthesis and receptor signaling is a promising strategy for the development of novel therapies for various diseases throughout the body.
- bile acid
- whole body