Bile acid-activated receptors in innate and adaptive immunity: targeted drugs and biological agents

Kenneth Chat Pan Cheung*, Jiao Ma, Rodrigo Azevedo Loiola, Xingxuan Chen, Wei Jia

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Bile acid-activated receptors (BARs) such as a G-protein bile acid receptor 1 and the farnesol X receptor are activated by bile acids (BAs) and have been implicated in the regulation of microbiota-host immunity in the intestine. The mechanistic roles of these receptors in immune signaling suggest that they may also influence the development of metabolic disorders. In this perspective, we provide a summary of recent literature describing the main regulatory pathways and mechanisms of BARs and how they affect both innate and adaptive immune system, cell proliferation, and signaling in the context of inflammatory diseases. We also discuss new approaches for therapy and summarize clinical projects on BAs for the treatment of diseases. In parallel, some drugs that are classically used for other therapeutic purposes and BAR activity have recently been proposed as regulators of immune cells phenotype. Another strategy consists of using specific strains of gut bacteria to regulate BA production in the intestine.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2250299
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Journal of Immunology
Issue number8
Early online date12 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

User-Defined Keywords

  • bile acid
  • intestinal macrophage
  • GPBAR1
  • FXR
  • ROR-γ


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