Beginning and first-year language teachers’ readiness for the generative AI age

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review


The public release of ChatGPT in November 2022 ignited an intense debate about the effects generative AI (GAI) tools will have on language teaching. The advanced capability of GAI tools and their rapid uptake by students has brought both challenges and opportunities to language teachers. This qualitative study, using in-depth individual and group interviews with ten beginning teachers and seventeen first-year English language teachers, explored their readiness for using GAI tools in their professional work and their perceptions of GAI in language teaching. The study found that first-year teachers were generally ready for the use of GAI tools and could recognize its potential to support their professional work. This was largely due to their experiences using ChatGPT. However, beginning teachers were not ready to use GAI tools in their professional work and had little knowledge about them. The study provides insights into the participants’ GAI readiness; awareness of GAI tools and their capabilities and functions; utilization of GAI tools for language teaching; views towards students' use of GAI tools; and thoughts on how to prepare language learners to use GAI tools productively and critically. The study has implications for the preparation and professional development of early career teachers in the GAI-age.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100201
Number of pages8
JournalComputers and Education: Artificial Intelligence
Early online date3 Jan 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Jan 2024

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications

User-Defined Keywords

  • Beginning teachers
  • ChatGPT
  • Generative AI
  • Initial teacher education
  • Language teacher education
  • Teacher readiness


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