Association of arch stiffness with plantar impulse distribution during walking, running, and gait termination

Xuanzhen Cen, Datao Xu, Julien Baker, Yaodong Gu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between arch stiffness and relative regional impulse during walking, running, and stopping. A total of 61 asymptomatic male subjects volunteered to participate in the study. All were classified by calculating the arch stiffness index using 3-dimensional foot morphological scanning. Plantar pressure distribution data were collected from participants using a Footscan pressure platform during gait tests that included walking, running, and gait termination. The stiff arches group (n = 19) and flexible arches group (n = 17) were included in the following data analysis. The results suggested that subjects with stiffer arches had a larger and smaller percentage of plantar impulse in the forefoot and rearfoot, respectively, than subjects with more flexible arches during walking and running. However, during gait termination, which included planned and unplanned gait stopping, the plantar impulse distribution pattern was found to be reversed. The current findings demonstrate that the distributional changes of plantar loading follow unidirectional transfer between the forefoot and the rearfoot on the plantar longitudinal axis. Moreover, the patterns of impulse distribution are also different based on different gait task mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2090
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2 Mar 2020

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

User-Defined Keywords

  • Arch stiffness index
  • Arch structure
  • Gait stop
  • Impulse
  • Unplanned gait termination


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