Association Between Eating Speed and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Shu Qian Yuan, Ying Ming Liu, Wei Liang, Fei Fei Li, Yuan Zeng, Yin Yue Liu, Shu Zhen Huang, Quan Yuan He, Binh Quach, Jiao Jiao, Julien S. Baker, Yi De Yang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: This review aimed to systematically summarize and meta-analyze the association between eating speed and metabolic syndrome (MetS). 

Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews, and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, four electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched until March 2021 to identify eligible articles based on a series of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Heterogeneity was examined using I2 statistics. Using random-effects models, the pooled odds ratios (ORs), and 95% CIs were calculated to evaluate the association between eating speed with MetS and its components, including central obesity, blood pressure (BP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglyceride (TG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). 

Results: Of the 8,500 original hits generated by the systematic search, 29 eligible studies with moderate-to-high quality were included, involving 465,155 subjects. The meta-analysis revealed that eating faster was significantly associated with higher risks of MetS (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.27–1.86), central obesity (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.37–1.73), elevated BP (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.13–1.40), low HDL (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.15–1.31), elevated TG (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18–1.42), and elevated FPG (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06–1.27) compared to eating slowly. 

Conclusions: The results of the review indicated that eating speed was significantly associated with MetS and its components. Interventions related to decreasing eating speed may be beneficial for the management of MetS. 

Original languageEnglish
Article number700936
Number of pages13
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2021

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Food Science
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

User-Defined Keywords

  • central obesity
  • eating speed
  • elevated blood pressure
  • meta-analysis
  • metabolic syndrome
  • systematic review


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