The photodynamic properties of pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester (MPPa), a semi-synthetic photosensitizer derived from chlorophyll a, were evaluated in a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE-1 cell line. MPPa was non-toxic to the HONE-1. At the concentrations of 0.5-2 μM, MPPa-mediated a drug dose-dependent photocytotoxicity in the HONE-1 cells. Confocal microscopy revealed a subcellular localization of MPPa in mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. MPPa PDT-induced apoptosis was associated with the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, the up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (calnexin, Grp 94 and Grp78), and the activation of caspases-3 and -9. The photocytotoxicity was reduced by the corresponding specific caspase inhibitors. MPPa PDT-treated HONE-1 cells also up-regulated the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and beta-chemokines (MIP-1β, MPIF-1, and MPIF-2). These results suggest that the MPPa may be developed as a chlorophyll-based photosensitizer for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Mitochondrial membrane potential
- Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
- Photodynamic therapy
- Pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester