Analysis of azole fungicides in fish muscle tissues: Multi-factor optimization and application to environmental samples

Yuanhong Zhong, Zhi Feng Chen*, Shuang Shuang Liu, Xiaoxin Dai, Xinping Zhu, Guangming Zheng, Shugui Liu, Guoguang Liu, Zongwei CAI

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Azole fungicides have been reported to be accumulated in fish tissue. In this study, a sensitive and robust method using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with ultrasonic extraction, solid-liquid clean-up, liquid–liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction (SPE) for enrichment and purification have been proposed for determination of azole fungicides in fish muscle samples. According to the results of non-statistical analysis and statistical analysis, ethyl acetate, primary secondary amine (PSA) and mixed-mode cation exchange cartridge (MCX) were confirmed as the best extraction solvent, clean-up sorbent and SPE cartridge, respectively. The satisfied recoveries (81.7–104%) and matrix effects (−6.34–7.16%), both corrected by internal standards, were performed in various species of fish muscle matrices. Method quantification limits of all azoles were in the range of 0.07–2.83 ng/g. This optimized method was successfully applied for determination of the target analytes in muscle samples of field fish from Beijiang River and its tributaries. Three azole fungicides including climbazole, clotrimazole and carbendazim were detected at ppb levels in fish muscle tissues. Therefore, this analytical method is practical and suitable for further clarifying the contamination profiles of azole fungicides in wild fish species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-543
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2017

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

User-Defined Keywords

  • Analytical method
  • Azole fungicide
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Fish muscle
  • Hierarchical clustering heatmap


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