Background: Hyperglycemia is associated with increased risk of all-site cancer that may be mediated through activation of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme-A-reductase (HMGCR) pathways. We examined the joint associations of optimal glycemic control (HbA1c <7%), RAS inhibitors and HMGCR inhibitors on cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Patients with type 2 diabetes, with or without a history of cancer or prior exposure to RAS or HMGCR inhibitors at baseline were observed between 1996 and 2005. All patients underwent a comprehensive assessment at baseline and were followed until the censored date at 2005 or their death. Results: After a median follow-up period of 4.91 years (interquartile range, 2.81 to 6.98), 271 out of 6,103 patients developed all-site cancer. At baseline, patients with incident cancers were older, had longer disease duration of diabetes, higher alcohol and tobacco use, and higher systolic blood pressure and albuminuria, but lower triglyceride levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (P <0.05). Patients who developed cancers during follow-up were less likely to have started using statins (22.5% versus 38.6%, P <0.001), fibrates (5.9% versus 10.2%, P = 0.02), metformin (63.8% versus 74.5%, P <0.001) or thiazolidinedione (0.7% versus 6.8%, P <0.001) than those who remained cancer-free. After adjusting for co-variables, new treatment with metformin (hazard ratio: 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.61; P <0.001), thiazolidinedione (0.18; 0.04, 0.72; P = 0.015), sulphonylurea (0.44; 0.27, 0.73; P = 0.014), insulin (0.58; 0.38, 0.89; P = 0.01), statins (0.47; 0.31, 0.70; P <0.001) and RAS inhibitors (0.55; 0.39, 0.78; P <0.001) were associated with reduced cancer risk. Patients with all three risk factors of HbA1c ≥7%, non-use of RAS inhibitors and non-use of statins had four-fold adjusted higher risk of cancer than those without any risk factors (incidence per 1,000-person-years for no risk factors: 3.40 (0.07, 6.72); one risk factor: 6.34 (4.19, 8.50); two risk factors: 8.40 (6.60, 10.20); three risk factors: 13.08 (9.82, 16.34); P <0.001). Conclusions: Hyperglycemia may promote cancer growth that can be attenuated by optimal glycemic control and inhibition of the RAS and HMGCR pathways.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Cancer risk
- Glycemic control
- Renin-angiotensin-system inhibitors
- Type 2 diabetes