A unified global genotyping framework of dengue virus serotype-1 for a stratified coordinated surveillance strategy of dengue epidemics

Liqiang Li, Xiang Guo, Xiaoqing Zhang, Lingzhai Zhao, Li Li, Yuji Wang, Tian Xie, Qingqing Yin, Qinlong Jing, Tian Hu, Ziyao Li, Rangke Wu, Wei Zhao, Sherman Xuegang Xin, Benyun Shi, Jiming Liu, Shang Xia, Zhiqiang Peng, Zhicong Yang, Fuchun Zhang*Xiao-Guang Chen*, Xiaohong Zhou*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Dengue is the fastest spreading arboviral disease, posing great challenges on global public health. A reproduceable and comparable global genotyping framework for contextualizing spatiotemporal epidemiological data of dengue virus (DENV) is essential for research studies and collaborative surveillance.

 Methods: Targeting DENV-1 spreading prominently in recent decades, by reconciling all qualified complete E gene sequences of 5003 DENV-1 strains with epidemiological information from 78 epidemic countries/areas ranging from 1944 to 2018, we established and characterized a unified global high-resolution genotyping framework using phylogenetics, population genetics, phylogeography, and phylodynamics. 

Results: The defined framework was discriminated with three hierarchical layers of genotype, subgenotype and clade with respective mean pairwise distances 2–6%, 0.8–2%, and ≤ 0.8%. The global epidemic patterns of DENV-1 showed strong geographic constraints representing stratified spatial-genetic epidemic pairs of Continent-Genotype, Region-Subgenotype and Nation-Clade, thereby identifying 12 epidemic regions which prospectively facilitates the region-based coordination. The increasing cross-transmission trends were also demonstrated. The traditional endemic countries such as Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia displayed as persisting dominant source centers, while the emerging epidemic countries such as China, Australia, and the USA, where dengue outbreaks were frequently triggered by importation, showed a growing trend of DENV-1 diffusion. The probably hidden epidemics were found especially in Africa and India. Then, our framework can be utilized in an accurate stratified coordinated surveillance based on the defined viral population compositions. Thereby it is prospectively valuable for further hampering the ongoing transition process of epidemic to endemic, addressing the issue of inadequate monitoring, and warning us to be concerned about the cross-national, cross-regional, and cross-continental diffusions of dengue, which can potentially trigger large epidemics. 

Conclusions: The framework and its utilization in quantitatively assessing DENV-1 epidemics has laid a foundation and re-unveiled the urgency for establishing a stratified coordinated surveillance platform for blocking global spreading of dengue. This framework is also expected to bridge classical DENV-1 genotyping with genomic epidemiology and risk modeling. We will promote it to the public and update it periodically. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Article number107
Number of pages16
JournalInfectious Diseases of Poverty
Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2022

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

User-Defined Keywords

  • Dengue virus serotype-1 (DENV-1)
  • Molecular epidemiology
  • Population structure
  • Phylogeography
  • Global genotyping framework
  • Molecular surveillance


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