Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been widely adopted to elicit muscle contraction in rehabilitation training after spinal cord injury (SCI). Conventional FES modalities include stimulations coupled with rowing, cycling, assisted walking and other derivatives. In this review, we studied thirteen clinical reports from the past 5 years and evaluated the effects of various FES aided rehabilitation plans on the functional recovery after SCI, highlighting upper and lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary function, and balder control. We further explored potential mechanisms of FES using the Hebbian theory and lumbar locomotor central pattern generators. Overall, FES can be used to improve respiration, circulation, hand strength, mobility, and metabolism after SCI.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Functional electrical stimulation
- Spinal cord injury