Background: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disease with few effective and safe therapies. Young Yum Pill (YYP), a proprietary herbal drug, has been used to relieve CFS-like symptoms. The pharmacological basis of this application of YYP is unknown.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of action of YYP in a mouse model of CFS.
Study design and methods: A food restriction and exhaustive swimming-induced mouse CFS model was used to evaluate the effects of YYP. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by MTT assays. T-lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Serum biochemical parameters were determined using commercial kits. Protein levels were measured by immunoblotting.
Results: Intragastric administration of YYP (2.85, 5.70, 11.40 g/kg) daily for 21 consecutive days significantly prolonged swimming time and diminished body weight loss of CFS mice. Mechanistic investigations revealed that YYP increased thymus and spleen indices of CFS mice, enhanced proliferation of lipopolysaccharide- or concanavalin A-stimulated spleen lymphocytes, and increased CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T-cells in the spleen. YYP increased glycogen content in gastrocnemius muscle and liver, and lowered levels of triglyceride, lactic acid and urea nitrogen in sera of CFS mice. YYP suppressed the elevation of serum level of malondialdehyde, the increase of activities of lactic dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase, and the decrease of activity of the serum antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase in CFS mice. Moreover, YYP upregulated protein level of activated AMPK in gastrocnemius muscle and liver of CFS mice.
Conclusions: YYP ameliorates CFS by reversing metabolic changes, reducing oxidative damage, and improving some immune function parameters in mice. This study provides pharmacological justifications for the use of YYP in treating fatigue, including CFS.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Drug Discovery
- Complementary and alternative medicine
- Chronic fatigue syndrome
- Immune function
- Metabolic changes
- Oxidative damage
- Young Yum Pill