A Multifactorial Approach for Sarcopenia Assessment: A Literature Review

Rashmi Supriya*, Kumar Purnendu Singh, Yang Gao, Feifei Li, Frédéric Dutheil, Julien S. Baker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Sarcopenia refers to a progressive and generalized weakness of skeletal muscle as individuals age. Sarcopenia usually occurs after the age of 60 years and is associated with a persistent decline in muscle strength, function, and quality. A comparison of the risk factors associated with sarcopenia based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia (1 and 2) in Older People, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (1 and 2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia, and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health revealed no consistent patterns. Accordingly, the identification of a single risk factor for sarcopenia is unpredictable due to its “multifactorial” pathogenesis, with the involvement of a multitude of factors. Therefore, the first aim of this review was to outline and propose that the multiple factors associated with sarcopenia need to be considered in combination in the design of new experimentation in this area. A secondary aim was to highlight the biochemical risk factors that are already identified in subjects with sarcopenia to assist scientists in understanding the biology of the pathophysiological mechanisms affecting the old people with sarcopenia. We also briefly discuss primary outcomes (physical) and secondary outcomes (social and financial) of sarcopenia. For future investigative purposes, this comprehensive review may be useful in considering important risk factors in the utilization of a panel of biomarkers emanating from all pathways involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. This may help to establish a uniform consensus for screening and defining this disease. Considering the COVID-19 pandemic, its impact may be exacerbated in older populations, which requires immediate attention. Here, we briefly suggest strategies for advancing the development of smart technologies to deliver exercise in the COVID-19 era in an attempt regress the onset of sarcopenia. These strategies may also have an impact on sarcopenia’s primary and secondary outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1354
JournalBiology
Volume10
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Dec 2021

User-Defined Keywords

  • sarcopenia
  • biomarkers
  • genetic factors
  • psychosocial factors
  • behavioral risk factors
  • literature review

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