## Abstract

A high-order particle-source-in-cell (PSIC) algorithm is presented for the computation of the interaction between shocks, small scale structures, and liquid and/or solid particles in high-speed engineering applications. The improved high-order finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO-Z) method for solution of the hyperbolic conservation laws that govern the shocked carrier gas flow, lies at the heart of the algorithm. Finite sized particles are modeled as points and are traced in the Lagrangian frame. The physical coupling of particles in the Lagrangian frame and the gas in the Eulerian frame through momentum and energy exchange, is numerically treated through high-order interpolation and weighing. The centered high-order interpolation of the fluid properties to the particle location is shown to lead to numerical instability in shocked flow. An essentially non-oscillatory interpolation (ENO) scheme is devised for the coupling that improves stability. The ENO based algorithm is shown to be numerically stable and to accurately capture shocks, small flow features and particle dispersion. Both the carrier gas and the particles are updated in time without splitting with a third-order Runge-Kutta TVD method. One and two-dimensional computations of a shock moving into a particle cloud demonstrates the characteristics of the WENO-Z based PSIC method (PSIC/WENO-Z). The PSIC/WENO-Z computations are not only in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations with a third-order Rusanov based PSIC and physical experiments in [V. Boiko, V.P. Kiselev, S.P. Kiselev, A. Papyrin, S. Poplavsky, V. Fomin, Shock wave interaction with a cloud of particles, Shock Waves, 7 (1997) 275-285], but also show a significant improvement in the resolution of small scale structures. In two-dimensional simulations of the Mach 3 shock moving into forty thousand bronze particles arranged in the shape of a rectangle, the long time accuracy of the high-order method is demonstrated. The fifth-order PSIC/WENO-Z method with the fifth-order ENO interpolation scheme improves the small scale structure resolution over the third-order PSIC/WENO-Z method with a second-order central interpolation scheme. Preliminary analysis of the particle interaction with the flow structures shows that sharp particle material arms form on the side of the rectangular shape. The arms initially shield the particles from the accelerated flow behind the shock. A reflected compression wave, however, reshocks the particle arm from the shielded area and mixes the particles.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 1365-1379 |

Number of pages | 15 |

Journal | Journal of Computational Physics |

Volume | 228 |

Issue number | 5 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 20 Mar 2009 |

## Scopus Subject Areas

- Numerical Analysis
- Modelling and Simulation
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Computer Science Applications
- Computational Mathematics
- Applied Mathematics

## User-Defined Keywords

- Eulerian-Lagrangian
- Hyperbolic conservation laws
- Particle-mesh
- Particle-source-in-cell
- Shock-particle-laden
- WENO