A generalization of LSB matching

Xiaolong Li*, Bin Yang, Daofang Cheng, Tieyong Zeng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

108 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, a significant improvement of the well-known least significant bit (LSB) matching steganography has been proposed, reducing the changes to the cover image for the same amount of embedded secret data. When the embedding rate is 1, this method decreases the expected number of modification per pixel (ENMPP) from 0.5 to 0.375. In this letter, we propose the so-called generalized LSB matching (G-LSB-M) scheme, which generalizes this method and LSB matching. The lower bound of ENMPP for G-LSB-M is investigated, and a construction of G-LSB-M is presented by using the sum and difference covering set of finite cyclic group. Compared with the previous works, we show that the suitable G-LSB-M can further reduce the ENMPP and lead to more secure steganographic schemes. Experimental results illustrate clearly the better resistance to steganalysis of G-LSB-M.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-72
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Signal Processing Letters
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2009

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics

User-Defined Keywords

  • Generalized least significant bit (LSB) matching (G-LSB-M)
  • Information hiding
  • Least significant bit (LSB) matching
  • Steganography
  • Sum and difference covering set


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