A Cryogenic Process for Antisolvent-Free High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

Annie Ng, Zhiwei Ren, Hanlin Hu, Patrick W.K. Fong, Qian Shen, Sin Hang CHEUNG, Pingli Qin, Jin Wook Lee, Aleksandra B. Djurišić, Shu Kong SO, Gang Li, Yang Yang, Charles Surya*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


A cryogenic process is introduced to control the crystallization of perovskite layers, eliminating the need for the use of environmentally harmful antisolvents. This process enables decoupling of the nucleation and the crystallization phases by inhibiting chemical reactions in as-cast precursor films rapidly cooled down by immersion in liquid nitrogen. The cooling is followed by blow-drying with nitrogen gas, which induces uniform precipitation of precursors due to the supersaturation of precursors in the residual solvents at very low temperature, while at the same time enhancing the evaporation of the residual solvents and preventing the ordered precursors/perovskite from redissolving into the residual solvents. Using the proposed techniques, the crystallization process can be initiated after the formation of a uniform precursor seed layer. The process is generally applicable to improve the performance of solar cells using perovskite films with different compositions, as demonstrated on three different types of mixed halide perovskites. A champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 21.4% with open-circuit voltage (VOC) = 1.14 V, short-circuit current density (JSC) = 23.5 mA cm−2, and fill factor (FF) = 0.80 is achieved using the proposed cryogenic process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1804402
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number44
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2018

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

User-Defined Keywords

  • blow-dry process
  • cryogenic treatment
  • crystallization
  • nucleation
  • perovskite solar cells
  • residual solvents


Dive into the research topics of 'A Cryogenic Process for Antisolvent-Free High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this