A Concept Mapping Study on Social Inclusion in Hong Kong

Kara Chan*, Sherrill Evans, Yu-Leung Ng, Marcus Yu-Lung Chiu, Peter J. Huxley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


A focus group study involving concept mapping was conducted in September 2012 to investigate how the concept of social inclusion was understood by Hong Kong residents. It was a replication of an earlier UK study. Seven groups involving 61 participants (38 females; 23 males) were interviewed, including non-professional workers at a Non-government Organisation service, senior centre users, a mixed group of community residents, people with severe mental illness, professional social service providers, communication studies students, and social work students. Data analysis using Nvivo 10 and systematic thematic analysis identified six major themes including: (1) material resources and wealth, (2) work, (3) social (dis)harmony and diversity, (4) discrimination, (5) communication, and (6) participation in activities. An overall final model of Social Inclusion for Hong Kong based on concept maps for all seven groups is presented. The results will inform the conceptualisation and development of a Chinese-language measure of social inclusion (SCOPE-C) based on translation and cultural adaption of the Social and Community Opportunities Profile (SCOPE) developed in UK.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-137
Number of pages17
JournalSocial Indicators Research
Issue number1
Early online date2 Nov 2013
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Sciences(all)

User-Defined Keywords

  • Concept mapping
  • Inclusive practices
  • Qualitative methods
  • Social harmony
  • Social inclusion


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