满汉《清文指要》使役结构句式表达比较研究

Translated title of the contribution: A comparative study on the sentence expression of causative in Qingwen zhiyao Manchu and Chinese versions (In Chinese)

张美兰, 李沫

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

满语使动态是在动词词根与动词时制间接缀附加成分“bu”构成。使役受使者成分有宾格“be”或与位格“de”标记,构成“S使事+ N受使+be/de+V(-bu-)”的使役句式。文章主要讨论了满汉合璧本《清文指要》中汉语对译满语使动态词缀“bu”时的表达情况,调查发现满语该结构中“N受使”缺省与否、有无标记以及生命度的高低直接导致汉译呈现出显性使役、隐性使役和非使役三种策略,动词V的及物性高低,影响到汉译中选择致使还是使让两个不同类型使役句表达。这更显示出满语该句式使动态词缀“bu”的显赫特征。早期汉译本受满文影响大,汉语北京官话改写本在遵循使役句式根本特点的基础上,更倾向于清末北方汉语口语表达。

Manchu causative sentence is formed by the affix “bu” after the verbal root. The causee has objective case mark “be” or dative case mark “de”, and constitutes causative sentence formed as “S+N+be/de+V(-bu-)”. This research discusses the expression of the affix “bu” in the translation of Manchu into Chinese in QingWenZhiYao Manchu and Chinese versions. It is found that in Manchu causative sentence, the absence of causee, marked or not, and animacy hierarchy directly lead to three strategies in Chinese translation: explicit causation, implicit causation and non-causation. The transitivity of verbs affects the choice of causation or permission in Chinese translation. This shows the affix “bu” is a prominent feature in Manchu causative sentence. The early Chinese version was greatly influenced by Manchu. The rewriting of Beijing Mandarin followed the basic characteristics of the causative sentence pattern and was more inclined to the oral expression of northern Chinese in the late Qing Dynasty.
Translated title of the contributionA comparative study on the sentence expression of causative in Qingwen zhiyao Manchu and Chinese versions (In Chinese)
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Journal中国语言学报
Volume50
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022

User-Defined Keywords

  • bu词缀
  • 满汉合璧
  • 汉译策略
  • 语言类型
  • 显赫范畴
  • Causative affix “bu”
  • Manchu and Chinese combination
  • Chinese translation strategy
  • Language types
  • Mighty category

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