A Comparative Biomechanical Analysis during Planned and Unplanned Gait Termination in Individuals with Different Arch Stiffnesses

Xuanzhen Cen, Zhenghui Lu, Julien Baker*, Bíró István, Yaodong Gu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Although values of arch stiffness index (ASI) have been used to evaluate arch structure and injury susceptibility, investigations are limited regarding the influence of ASI on biomechanical characteristics during gait termination, which involves a challenging balance transition from walking to standing. This study aimed to explore plantar pressure distribution and lower extremity joint kinematic differences between individuals with both a stiff and flexible arch (SA and FA, respectively) during planned and unplanned gait termination (PGT and UGT, respectively). Following the calculation of ASI, sixty-five asymptomatic male subjects were classified and participated in two types of gait termination tests to acquire kinematic and plantar pressure data. Parameters were compared between SA and FA using a two-way ANOVA during PGT and UGT, respectively. UGT was found to have a larger range of motion on the hip joint in the sagittal plane and the knee joint in the transverse plane when compared with PGT. The differences in the kinematic characteristics of the lower limb joints caused by the difference in arch stiffness are mainly concentrated in the ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints. Plantar pressure data, represented by the maximum pressure, showed significant differences in the forefoot and rearfoot areas. These results suggest that ASI could change freedom of motion of the lower limb joints, and UGT tends to conduct a compensatory adjustment for the lower extremity kinetic chain. An understanding of the biomechanical characteristics of arch structures may provide additional insights into foot function and injury prediction during gait termination.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1871
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2021

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

User-Defined Keywords

  • Arch stiffness index
  • Gait stop
  • Injury prediction
  • Joint kinematics
  • Plantar pressure


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