金庾信「仙化」探微

Translated title of the contribution: A Study on the Mythification of Kim Yushin

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Abstract

新羅(公元前57—公元935年)大將金庾信(公元595 - 673年)在韓國史上可說 是家喻戶嘵的大人物。他十五歲成為「花郎」,矢志為國盡忠,奮力抵抗百濟 (公元前18 ~公元660年)及高句麗(公元前37-公元668年)的侵略。此後戎馬 大半生,或為新羅統一三國大業的最重要功臣。金庾信既有王族血統,且為國家 立下豐功偉業,更位極人臣,官至史無前例的r太大角干」(太大舒發翰),出將 入相,堪稱新羅史上第一人。現今跆拳道二十四套路之中,也有一式「庾信」, 足見他在韓國人心目中的崇高地位。

金庾信的傳奇一生,成為他「成仙」的最重要條件。他的事蹟,主要見於高麗 朝(公元918-1392年)文臣金富軾(公元1075-1151年)所撰《三國史記》及 僧人一然(公元1206-1289年)所撰《三國遺事》之內。在這兩部古籍中,金庾 信被「仙化」——他的出生、成長、學藝、從軍,以至逝世,都帶著濃厚的神仙 色彩。事實上,現今的韓國人都已經把金庾信奉為神仙,他是韓國著名傳統節日「江陵端午祭」斬拜祭的「十二山神」之一。

本文嘗試以文獻資料為本,描繪金庾信的「仙化」面貌、追尋其「咸仙」歷 程,並分祈他「成仙」的原因,從而闡釋這一獨特歷史現象的文化意涵。

Remembered by Koreans as one of the greatest generals in history, Kim Yushin (595-673 AD) served in 7th century Silla (57 BC~935 AD). At the young age of 15, he became a Hwarang (Flower Boy) and went on to play an important role in the continuous wars against Baekje (18 BC~660 AD) and Goguryeo (37 BC~668 AD). In 668 AD, the Korean Peninsula came be unified under Silla. Kim Yushin’s outstanding efforts in the unification wars of the Three Kingdoms led to his accreditation as the major driving force in the campaign. Further taking into account that he was already a member of the royal family, King Munmu of Silla eventually bestowed upon him the honor of Taedaegakgan, a title unprecedented in Korean history. Today, Kim Yushin's status in Korean society remains intact where one of the 24 Patterns in Taekwon-Do ITF (International Taekwon~Do Federation) is named after him (Yoo-Sin).

Through the progress of time, Kim Yushin emerged a legend, his stories fabricated to become a myth. The life of Kim can be found in two historical records both of which had been compiled during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392 AD): Samguk Sagi (History of the Three Kingdoms) written by Goryeo Confucian scholar Kim Busik (1075-1151 AD) and Samguk Yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms), penned by Goryeo Buddhist monk Iryeon (1206—1289 AD). These records document the birth, upbringing, education and death of Kim Yushiri through fictional accounts, allowing the man to re-emerge as a Mountain God and become one of the Twelve Mountain Gods that is worshipped and celebrated during the Gangneung Danoje festival to date.

Through a closer examination of the aforementioned records, this article shall demonstrate the myth surrounding Kim Yushin's life, further highlighting the various developments and re-developments in the process of fabrication and finally analyzing the reasons behind in hopes of shedding light on the implications of this particular historical spectrum.
Translated title of the contributionA Study on the Mythification of Kim Yushin
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Pages (from-to)425-471
Number of pages47
Journal영남학
Volume26
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014
Event第二屆東亞文化與國際關係研討會 = 2nd Conference on East Asian Culture and International Relations 2014 - Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Duration: 16 Apr 201417 Apr 2014
http://mhrc.hkbu.edu.hk/pdf/16&17-4-2014.pdf

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Arts and Humanities(all)

User-Defined Keywords

  • 金庾信
  • 新羅
  • 仙化
  • 花郎
  • 《三國史記》
  • 《三國遺事》
  • 江陵端午祭
  • 韓國神話
  • Kim Yushin (Kim Yoo-Sin)
  • Silla
  • Mythification
  • Hwarang (Flower Boys)
  • Samguk Sagi (History of the Three Kingdoms)
  • Samguk Yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms)
  • Gangneung Danoje
  • Korean Mythology

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