西汉儒家政治、文化视域下的周公与孔子——以《汉书》为论述中心

Translated title of the contribution: Zhou Gong and Confucius in the Perspective of Politics and Culture in the Western Han Dynasty ─Focusing on the Book of Han

杨兆贵, 吴学忠

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Abstract

周公是中国古代史、经学史上一位极其重要的人物。历来学者对他摄政或称王,说法
纷纭。西汉儒去古未远,对周公的评论为后代研究周公提供了重要的材料。汉儒在当时的政治、文化、社会思潮的背景下对周公一生的事迹提出一些说法,主要有周公摄政或“践天子位”说,周公与成王的关系,周公诛管、蔡,周公是道统代表,是孝子等,由此可见周公在汉儒心目中有重要的地位。在汉代,孔子也被尊奉为圣人。汉儒还称赞孔子是孝子,是继周公之后的道统继承者。他们认为孔子与经学的关系极其密切,尤其是孔子撰写《春秋》,为汉制法。汉儒把孔子之言奉为言行的圭臬、指导原则。通过比较,可见周公、孔子都是汉儒心目中的圣人、孝子,汉儒更多引用孔子之言,孔子对汉儒各方面的影响要比周公广泛,但在政治思想领域,汉儒更偏重于尊崇周公。这与汉儒通经致用的思想不无关系,周公成为汉儒心目中的道统、圣王合一的代表。从西汉儒家对周公的论评,可从另一角度窥见西汉儒学的发展及学术与政治、思想的关系。

Zhou Gong or the Duke of Zhou is a sage master in the history of ancient China and classical learning. Scholars do not see eye to eye regarding whether he merely acted as a prince regent or proclaimed himself a king. The different sayings of Confucian scholars in the Han Dynasty on Zhou Gong’s activities can afford a clue to be followed in tracing his life and thought.In general,most topics that Han Confucians discussed on Zhou Gong ranged from his royal capacity,namely,a prince regent or a self-proclaimed king,to the relationship between him and the King of Cheng,et cetera. Confucians respected him as a representative figure of the body of orthodox teachings as well as a good and worthy son in Confucian doctrine of filial piety. Zhou Gong is a great and important person in the eyes of Han Confucians. They discussed and elucidated his legacies with more earnestness after Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty set up a doctorate of the Five Classics and established Confucianism as the dominant ruling ideology. Through the comments of Han Confucians on Zhou Gong,we can gain a deeper insight into the development of Confucianism and the relationship amongst politics,academics and schools of thoughts in the Western Han Dynasty.
Translated title of the contributionZhou Gong and Confucius in the Perspective of Politics and Culture in the Western Han Dynasty ─Focusing on the Book of Han
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
Journal南都学坛
Volume40
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020

User-Defined Keywords

  • 西汉
  • 儒家
  • 周公
  • 孔子
  • 政治
  • 文化
  • Western Han
  • Confucian and Confucianism
  • Zhou Gong
  • Confucius

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