朝鲜时期《春秋》“西狩获麟”的经义诠释——汉代公羊学说中“新王”形象的塑造、消解和移用

Translated title of the contribution: The Interpretation of “Hunt and Capture the Unicorn in the West” as Recorded in Spring And Autumn Annals during the Chosun Dynasty: The Creation, Elimination and Transformation of “New King” Annotated by Gongyang Canon of the Han Dynasty

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Abstract

《春秋》哀公十四年记载"西狩获麟",《公羊传》注释"有王者则至,无王者则不至",认为麟的出现预示王者将至天下。沿袭这个说法,西汉公羊家董仲舒把《春秋》视作"新王",用来建构他的公羊学说。之后王莽纂汉,"符命说"、"五行学说"和"谶纬注经"大行其道,东汉光武帝刘秀顺时起兵称帝,自居汉家火德,为了巩固其帝位的认受性,于是儒生解释"获麟"是预示赤帝当"新王",基于汉代是赤帝之后,刘秀则是天命所归。东汉时,何休为了重获汉帝欢心,重振《公羊传》地位,故综合图谶,注释《公羊》,令"新王"的身分由赤帝转变为汉高祖刘邦。时移势易,异地更迭,朝鲜经儒漠视《公羊传》价值,对于汉代公羊家沾染谶语图说,更严加责备,"新王"在朝鲜半岛中彻底消解。随着朝鲜文人共同发掘及体认"获麟"的文学意义,"怀才不遇"的主题渐次呈现在朝鲜诗歌创作中,而"新王"的形象也被"圣贤"所取代。

“Hunt And Capture the Unicorn in the West” as recorded in the fourteenth year of Duke Ai’s reign of Spring and Autumn Annals, the phrase was interpreted by several schools of the Han Dynasty and The Gongyang Commentary is the legacy of one of them. The Gongyang Commentary maintains that the unicorn appears when there is a “New King” and it does not appear when there is no “New King”. In initiating the framework of Gongyang theory, Dong Zhong - shu, the leading Gongyang scholar of the West Han identified “Spring And Autumn” as “New King” even though the former is only a Lu’s chronicle. With the demise of the West Han, the identity of notional king was changed, Chi Emperor and Han Emperor Liu Bang were brought to the position of being “New King” in succession according to the political intention of the Confucian scholars and the annotation of He Xiu’s Gongyang theory. Not unexpectedly, the legitimacy of Han monarch sovereign was recognized in making use of the heavenly principle embodied in the written charm with the explanation of the prophecy and the sequence of “Five Elements”. However, the Korean scholars in Chosun Dynasty disregarded the orthodox of Gongyang Commentary, and also denied the political prophecy derived from the Han Gongyang scholars. In literary interpretation perspective, the main issue of the scripture was shifted from “New King” to “Capture Unicorn” in the Korean Peninsula, while the Korean scholars concerned themselves about how to symbolize and create the character of sage in their poetry through the interpretation of “Capture Unicorn”.
Translated title of the contributionThe Interpretation of “Hunt and Capture the Unicorn in the West” as Recorded in Spring And Autumn Annals during the Chosun Dynasty: The Creation, Elimination and Transformation of “New King” Annotated by Gongyang Canon of the Han Dynasty
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)163-175
Number of pages13
Journal中国文化研究
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2016

User-Defined Keywords

  • “西狩获麟”
  • “新王”
  • 圣贤形象
  • 文学诠释
  • “Hunt and Capture the Unicorn in the West”
  • New King
  • the image of sage
  • literary interpretation

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