宋代性理學在朝鮮半島的傳承與發揚: 以權近的思想為討論中心

Translated title of the contribution: Inheritance and Significance of Sung Neo-Confucianism on the Korean Peninsula: With Special Attention to the Philosophical Thought of Kwon Geun

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Abstract

宋代(公元960-1279年) 性理學約於高麗時代(公元918-1392年) 從中國東傳至朝鮮半島,為韓國古代文化,社會與學術思想帶來強烈衝擊,造成非常深遠的影響。高麗一代,雖然在施政上以儒家思想為最重要基礎,但歷代國王及王室成員大多篤信佛教,故佛教影響力甚至較儒家思想為大。性理學東傳以後,其排斥佛教的功能廣受儒家大臣歡迎,因而漸趨大盛,並成為日後朝鮮王朝(公元1392-1910年) 的立國指導思想,中國傳統儒家思想與意識形態也從此在朝鮮半島落地生根。

在性理學東傳至朝鮮半島並發揚光大的長久過程中,活躍於高麗末年至朝鮮初年的著名理學家權近(公元1352-1409年),扮演了非常重要的角色。權近出身頗具權勢的安東權氏家族,幼承庭訓,自小對宋學已有深厚認識,長大後更奉麗末著名學者李穡(公元1328-1396年) 為師,深造宋學,因而打下穩固的學問基礎。朝鮮王朝開國以後,權近作為開國功臣之一,更歷任要職,致力改革政治,把他的理學思想付諸實行,對朝鮮王朝初年的政治發展有甚大貢獻。

本文試以權近的思想為討論中心,尤其集中探討其人性論,理氣論,心性觀,以及作為核心理念的天人合一思想,希望藉此窺探宋學在朝鮮半島的傳承及發揚歷程,並進而察見性理學思想對韓國古代社會與文化的深遠影響。

During the late Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), Sung Neo-Confucianism was eastward disseminated to the Korean Peninsula and with the result that brought out profound significances on traditional Korean culture, society and academia. Traditional Chinese Confucianism was no doubt that the most important political ideology during the Goryeo Dynasty, however, Buddhism was a prominent philosophy and major religion for the Goryeo royal family. Sung Neo-Confucianism had been greatly welcomed by the Korean Confucian scholars and most of these scholars employed Sung Neo-Confucianism as an ideological weapon to attack Buddhism. Sung Neo-Confucianism was then transformed to be administrative and academic guidelines of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), Korean Confucian schools were also firmly established.

Kwon Geun (1352-1409) played an important role in the development procedure of Sung Neo-Confucianism on the Korean Peninsula. As a member of the famous Korean traditional Confucian family: Andong Kwon Clan; and also an excellent student of a conspicuous Confucian scholar: Yi Saek (1328-1396), Kwon Geun had excellent understanding in Sung Neo-Confucianism when he was young. Moreover, as a statesman with great achievements on foundation of the Joseon Dynasty, Kwon Geun became the most important official and scholar in the government, he also positively participated in political reforms, aimed to practice his political ideal which was based on Sung Neo-Confucianism.

This paper aims to confer the Confucian philosophical thought of Kwon Geun, thereby traces the development of Sung Neo-Confucianism on the Korean Peninsula and gives a brief analysis of the inheritance and significance of Sung Neo-Confucianism on the traditional Korean society and culture.
Translated title of the contributionInheritance and Significance of Sung Neo-Confucianism on the Korean Peninsula: With Special Attention to the Philosophical Thought of Kwon Geun
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Pages (from-to)117-166
Number of pages50
Journal동서인문
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Arts and Humanities(all)

User-Defined Keywords

  • 宋代性理學
  • 權近
  • 李穡
  • 中國傳統儒學
  • 韓國傳統儒學
  • 高麗王朝
  • 朝鮮王朝
  • 安東權氏
  • Sung Neo-Confucianism
  • Kwon Geun
  • Yi Saek
  • Traditional Chinese Confucianism
  • Traditional Korean Confucianism
  • Goryeo Dynasty
  • Joseon Dynasty
  • Andong Kwon Clan

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