「婦德莫病於私」——論李晚芳《女學言行纂》的「去私」思想

Translated title of the contribution: Si (Selfishness) as the Greatest Enemy of Female Morality: On the Notion of qusi (removing selfishness) in Li Wanfang’s Nüxue yanxing zuan

Research output: Chapter in book/report/conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

Abstract

古人論「去私」甚詳,舉凡討論到治國、為政、用兵,以至修身、進德、齊家等大問題時,古人幾乎一致強調「去私」工夫之重要。「去私」的觀念,也反映在女教文獻之中,例如提倡對私財、私語、私心等之揚棄。然而,將「私」許為婦德之大患,以「去私」為女學之端旨,則由李晚芳《女學言行纂》首倡。晚芳將「去私」思想納入婦學,大事發揮,與儒家先賢所倡去私存理等修身原則大抵相合。婦人論「去私」,與男性論「去私」,其表現之空間、層面容或有別,但精神實質還是一樣的。稽諸行事,可見晚芳這位才學之婦那種知行並重的精神。晚芳在為人女、為人婦、為人母諸人生階段,均未見私心自用,反而處處先公後私。勤事舅姑夫子,不在話下。終身不忘提醒兒子「敬宗收族」、建宗祠、立公田、周濟遠親近屬、捐獻私財等等,在在表現出晚芳大公無私的誠意。

Qusi (getting rid of one’s selfishness) is a very important concept in traditional Chinese thought. It has been thoroughly discussed in political, social, military and moral spheres by traditional Chinese intellectuals, especially Confucian scholars. Qusi is later permeated into traditional women's education so as to advocate them giving up private property, gossiping, and selfish motives.

Li Wanfang’s Nüxue yanxing zuan is the first work to identify qusi as the basic principle of women’s education. Li argues that si (selfishness) is the greatest enemy of female morality. Qusi is, therefore, an essential component of women’s moral ethics. Li’s elaboration of qusi parallels those of Confucian scholars, though the areas of concern are different.

Li earnestly practices what she advocates. Her priority is always her services to family members rather than her individual benefit and fame. She is a filial daughter and daughter-in-law, a devoting wife, and a selfless mother. She also instructs her son to carry out charitable acts such as offering financial help to relatives and donating money for the building of an ancestral hall. It is certainly fair to argue that Li herself is a perfect model of having qusi.
Translated title of the contributionSi (Selfishness) as the Greatest Enemy of Female Morality: On the Notion of qusi (removing selfishness) in Li Wanfang’s Nüxue yanxing zuan
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Title of host publication欲掩彌彰
Subtitle of host publication中國歷史文化中的「私」與「情」─ 私情篇
Editors 熊秉真
Publisher漢學硏究中心, 臺灣國家圖書館
Pages463-486
Number of pages24
ISBN (Print)957678378X, 9789576784675
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2003
Event欲掩彌彰:中國歷史文化中的「私」與「情」國際學術研討會 - National Central Library, Taipei, Taiwan, Province of China
Duration: 20 Aug 200122 Aug 2001

Conference

Conference欲掩彌彰:中國歷史文化中的「私」與「情」國際學術研討會
Country/TerritoryTaiwan, Province of China
CityTaipei
Period20/08/0122/08/01

User-Defined Keywords

  • 李晚芳
  • 《女學言行纂》
  • 《讀史管見》
  • 去私
  • 女教書
  • Li Wanfang
  • Nüxue yanxing zuan
  • Dushi guanjian
  • qusi
  • nü jiaoshu

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