佛教與基督教論罪惡: 評論阿部正雄的比較研究

Translated title of the contribution: Buddhism and Christianity on Evil: Critical Evaluation of Masao Abe’s Comparative Studies

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Abstract

By studying Masao Abe’s comparative studies, this essay explores the possibility of a Buddhist-Christian dialogue. The essay is divided into five sections. First, Abe’s reservations about the Christian views on deity and evil are explained, and some revisions are proposed. The second section explains Abe’s concept of dynamic Sunyata, which he considers to be a satisfactory explanation of the world, and hence the concept of God is not needed. The third section focuses on Abe’s views on ethics. He argues that Buddhism also cares about ethics, and the solution to evil is the personal experience of absolute nothingness or Sunyata—which is also the awakening of the true self. This is neither dualism nor monotheism. For Buddhists, both absolute good and absolute evil are illusions, and this is the main difference between Buddhism and Christianity. On the basis of the experience of Sunyata, Buddhism re-establishes the distinction between good and evil, but itis not limited by this viewpoint. The fourth section will shift to a dialogue between Abe and some Western scholars. As many Western scholars disagree with Abe’s treatment of absolute evil, this section will discuss the criticisms of Christopher Ives, Richard Rubenstein, etc. Lastly, the author will reflect on Abe’s comments on Christianity, and respond to his queries of the Christian views on God and evil from theological and philosophical perspectives.

本文以日本佛教學者阿部正雄為研究對象,探討佛教與基督教對話的可能性。全文共有五節,第一節先說明阿部正雄對基督教的神觀與罪惡觀的不認同,同時提出一點修正。第二節介紹阿部正雄論所謂動態的空的概念,依照阿部之見,在解釋世界方面,佛教的緣起性空觀就足夠,不需要「神」這概念。第三節申述阿部正雄認為佛教也關心倫理,而佛教對罪惡問題的答案就在於體證絕對虛無或空,而這也是真我的覺醒。這既非二元論,也不是一神論。對佛教徒而言,至善和絕對的惡都是幻覺,在這方面佛教是與基督教相當不同的。佛教是用空的體證重新建立二元的觀點和價值判斷,但不受它們限制。第四節指出,西方學者並不全然認同阿部正雄,例如關於絕對惡的論述,西方學者認為阿部正雄的處理並不恰當,因此本文會介紹西方學者,如艾佛斯(Christopher Ives)、魯班斯坦(Richard Rubenstein)等人的批判。最後,筆者反思阿部正雄對基督教的評論,並以神學與哲學觀點回應阿部正雄對基督教神觀及罪惡觀的質疑。
Translated title of the contributionBuddhism and Christianity on Evil: Critical Evaluation of Masao Abe’s Comparative Studies
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Pages (from-to)135-155
Number of pages21
Journal景風
Volume16
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017

User-Defined Keywords

  • Buddhism
  • Christianity
  • ethics
  • evil
  • Masao Abe
  • the Kyoto School
  • God
  • 佛教
  • 基督教
  • 倫理觀
  • 罪惡觀
  • 阿部正雄
  • 京都學派
  • 神觀

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