“万(萬)舞”與“庸奏”: 殷人祭祀樂舞與《詩》中三頌

Translated title of the contribution: The Wan Dance and the Yong Performance: The Sacrificial Music-dance Suite and Its Relations to the Three "Song" Sections in the Book of Songs

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Abstract

本文結合甲骨文金文材料‚與傳世經典中之資料‚考察商周時期之万(萬)舞樂制的形式‚及其與庸奏和《詩經》中三頌之關係。從甲骨文例出發‚我們看到万(萬)舞在商代祭祀中是一種詩樂舞相伴進行的禮樂中的一個重要組成部分‚其功用見之於祈年、祈雨、祭祖及學校中。而庸奏在甲骨文及經典中或作奏庸、用庸、乍(作)庸。“庸”既是商代王室與貴族所習用之青銅樂鐘‚在商代中晚期甲骨文中又用於指稱某種音樂體式‚包括音樂、歌詩與舞蹈相伴進行的用於祭祀的樂舞形式。万(萬)舞與庸奏往往相伴進行。由“庸”與“頌”的字源來看‚此庸奏樂舞後來演變爲《詩經》中的三頌。

The present paper seeks to explore the origin of the "song" Section of the Book of Songs in light of archaeological investigation and paleographic analysis. It discusses the etymology of a few characters in early inscriptional writing, such as wan (萬), song (頌) and yong (庸), and argues that the original meaning of song, derived from the name of a Shang instrument yong, depicts a musical suite commonly used in Shang ancestral sacrifices. A reading of the Shang oracle-bone inscriptions demonstrates that the wan dance was often accompanied with performance of the yong instrument, a percussion bell typical of the Shang Dynasty, which the Shang royal and noble families used in a ritual orchestra. Performances using this instrument was frequently described as yongzou (庸奏), zouyong (奏庸), yongyong (庸用) and zuoyong (乍[作]庸) in both transmitted and excavated documents. The song was the term created by the Zhou rulers to designate this yong music alterred to the need of Zhou, which underwent a substantial transition from religious to utilitarian, thereby leading to the transformation of the early poetics from a theological to a social function. Conforming precisely to this etymological deduction, the poems collected in the three "Song" sections of the extant Book of Songs, as we can see, compose an intact unity of songs praising the greatness of ancestors and used in sacrificial activities.
Translated title of the contributionThe Wan Dance and the Yong Performance: The Sacrificial Music-dance Suite and Its Relations to the Three "Song" Sections in the Book of Songs
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Pages (from-to)35-64, 390-391
Number of pages32
Journal中华文史论丛
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Dec 2008

User-Defined Keywords

  • 万(萬)舞
  • 庸奏
  • 《詩經》
  • 三頌
  • 商周樂祭

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